What are ethmoid air cells?

What are ethmoid air cells?

The ethmoid sinuses or ethmoid air cells of the ethmoid bone are one of the four paired paranasal sinuses. The cells are variable in both size and number in the lateral mass of each of the ethmoid bones and cannot be palpated during an extraoral examination. They are divided into anterior and posterior groups.

What is a frontal cell?

Frontal cells are anterior ethmoid air cells located along the anterior aspect of the frontal recess. They are a subset of frontal recess cells and are classified into four types according to Kuhn’s classification. They are seen on CT in 20-33% of patients 1.

Are agger nasi cells normal?

Conclusion: Agger nasi air cells are a common anatomic feature, present in 93% of our patients.

What is frontal sinusitis?

Frontal sinusitis is inflammation or infection of the sinuses located just behind the eyes and in the forehead. The sinuses are a system of connected hollow cavities in the face that contain air and a thin layer of mucus.

Are Haller cells abnormal?

Although a Haller’s cell is considered a normal anatomical variant, when enlarged it can significantly constrict the posterior aspect of the ethmoidal infundibulum and maxillary ostium from above.

What is a Kuhn cell?

Kuhn classification is an anatomical classification for the subtypes of frontal cells: type 1 (~37%): a single air cell above the agger nasi cell. type 2 (~19%): two or more air cells above the agger nasi cell. type 3 (~7%): a single large cell above the agger nasi cell that extends into the frontal sinus.

What is Type 3 frontal cell?

Type III is a large cell pneumatizing from the frontal recess into the frontal sinus. Type IV is a cell totally isolated within the frontal sinus. Frontal cells have been reported to occur in 20–41% of paranasal sinuses [3.

What is ethmoid sinusitis?

Ethmoid sinusitis is the inflammation of a specific group of sinuses — the ethmoid sinuses — which sit between the nose and eyes. The ethmoid sinuses are hollow spaces in the bones around the nose. They have a lining of mucus to help prevent the nose from drying out.

Are Haller cells common?

Conclusion: Anatomical variations of the paranasal sinus region like Haller cells are quite common and they must be searched for by the surgeons planning any endoscopic sinus surgery.

How do you treat Haller cells?

Only diseased Haller cells or large cells blocking the ethmoidal infundibulum need to be addressed surgically and endoscopic resection of such cells remains the treatment of choice. Surgical intervention is also indicated when a Haller cell contributes to ostiomeatal complex obstruction and inflammation of the sinuses.