What does FWD mean in research methodology?

What does FWD mean in research methodology?

The existing tolerable deflection equations are based on Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) maximum deflection. This study successfully established a detail procedure for predicting remaining structural life without complex calculations using TSD deflection data.

How falling weight Deflectometer works?

The Falling Weight Deflectometer is a device that is used to evaluate pavement and pavement layer stiffness. It is a trailer-mounted device that operates by dropping a weight on to the pavement and measuring the resulting pavement deflections.

What is fwd in road construction?

The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is by far the most commonly used nondestructive test (NDT) device used by highway agencies for pavement structural evaluation and health monitoring. The FWD simulates a moving truck wheel load and measures the pavement response-deflection basin.

What is FWD survey?

A falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is a testing device used by civil engineers to evaluate the physical properties of pavement in highways, local roads, airport pavements, harbor areas, railway tracks and elsewhere.

What is pavement deflection?

The deflection of a pavement represents an overall system response of the surface, base, and subbase layers, as well as the subgrade itself. Thus, the parameters of the surface layer (thickness and stiffness) and of the supporting layers (thickness and stiffness) all affect the magnitude of the measured deflections.

What is Benkelman beam method?

Benkelman Beam is a simple lever-arm device that measures the deflection of flexible pavements under the action of moving wheel loads. The probe beam, supported by a rigid reference beam, measures deflections using its 2.44m (8ft) probe end and a dial indicator at the end of the fulcrum.

What is rebound deflection?

Rebound Deflection is defined as the amount of vertical rebound deflection of a pavement surface due to the moving load (Bina Marga, 2005).

What are the 4 drivetrain layouts?

Layouts can roughly be divided into three categories: front-wheel drive (FWD), rear-wheel drive (RWD) and four-wheel drive (4WD).

What is pavement roughness?

Pavement roughness is generally defined as an expression of irregularities in the pavement surface that adversely affect the ride quality of a vehicle (and thus the user).

What is overlay in pavement?

An overlay is any operation that consists of laying either Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) or Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) over an existing pavement structure. This is different than a total replacement of the structure, and is typically done when there is only minor to modest damage to the existing pavement structure.

What is Benkelman beam test?

Benkelman beam testing is a cost-effective means of testing conformance on new construction or testing short lengths of existing roads to determine areas requiring rehabilitation treatment.

What is the advantage of FWD?

Front Wheel Drive – FWD Meaning The pros of a FWD vehicle are that they typically gets better fuel economy and emits less carbon dioxide. Since the weight of the engine is located over the driving wheels, a FWD vehicle can maintain better traction in the snow.