What does transcription factor dimerization do?

What does transcription factor dimerization do?

Dimerization of transcription factors allows combinatorial control. (a) In this hypothetical example, transcription factors A, B and C can each form homodimers and heterodimers. This permits the three factors to bind to six different DNA sequences (1-6) and creating six combinations of activation domains.

Where are OXPHOS located in the cell mitochondria?

inner mitochondrial membrane
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the main source of energy in eukaryotic cells. This process is performed by means of electron flow between four enzymes, of which three are proton pumps, in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Can regulatory proteins dimerize?

Many of the gene regulatory proteins we have seen thus far bind DNA as homo-dimers, that is, dimers made up of two identical subunits. However, many gene regulatory proteins, including leucine zipper proteins, can also associate with nonidentical partners to form heterodimers composed of two different subunits.

What is a dimerization domain?

Membrane-bound guanylate cyclases harbor a region called the dimerization or linker domain, which aids the enzymes in adopting an optimal monomer-monomer arrangement for catalysis.

Is dimerization extracellular or intracellular?

The extracellular domain may dimerize, without an interaction intracellularly. Therefore, extracellular cross-linkers may allow detection of these dimers, while FRET analysis does not, due to the topology of the two fluorophores in the intracellular domains.

What is the process of dimerization?

What is dimerization? It is a process where two molecules of similar chemical composition come together to form a single polymer known as a dimer.

What happens when transcription factors are phosphorylated?

Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation can directly regulate distinct aspects of transcription factor function, including cellular localization, protein stability, protein-protein interactions and DNA binding.

Can oxidative phosphorylation occur under anaerobic conditions?

Aptly named due to its dependence on oxygen as the final electron acceptor, oxidative phosphorylation cannot take place in the absence of oxygen.

How is dimerization formed?

Molecular dimers are often formed by the reaction of two identical compounds e.g.: 2A → A-A. In this example, monomer “A” is said to dimerise to give the dimer “A-A”. An example is a diaminocarbene, which dimerise to give a tetraaminoethylene: 2 C(NR2)2 → (R2N)2C=C(NR2)

What is dimerization in immunology?

Dimerization events—physical interactions between related proteins—represent an important subset of protein-protein interactions and are frequently employed in transducing signals from the cell surface to the nucleus.