What is an example of translational control?

What is an example of translational control?

An interesting example of translational control is the switch between cap-independent and cap-dependent translation during the eukaryotic cell cycle.

What is translational gene control?

Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. This regulation is vastly important to the cellular response to stressors, growth cues, and differentiation.

What is translational gene expression?

Translational regulation of mRNA is an important step in the control of gene expression. In a general way, the efficiency of the translational apparatus can be influenced either positively or negatively by changing the level or the activity of rate-limiting protein factors taking part in the process of translation.

How is translation controlled in eukaryotes?

Translational Control via the Cap-Recognition Process A second extensively used mechanism in eukaryotes to control the rate of translation initiation involves the mRNA 5′-cap recognition process by eIF4F. Binding of eIF4F to the cap structure can be hindered by the eIF4E homolog, 4E-HP (see below).

Where does TransCRIPTIONAL control occur?

In Summary: Post-TransCRIPTIONAL Control of Gene Expression Post-transcriptional control can occur at any stage after transcription, including RNA splicing, nuclear shuttling, and RNA stability. Once RNA is transcribed, it must be processed to create a mature RNA that is ready to be translated.

Why is transcriptional control important?

Transcriptional regulation is a critical biological process that allows the cell or an organism to respond to a variety of intra- and extra-cellular signals, to define cell identity during development, to maintain it throughout its lifetime, and to coordinate cellular activity.

Where does transcriptional control occur?

How is gene expression controlled through translation?

Specifically, gene expression is controlled on two levels. First, transcription is controlled by limiting the amount of mRNA that is produced from a particular gene. The second level of control is through post-transcriptional events that regulate the translation of mRNA into proteins.

How is mRNA translation controlled?

mRNA translation is controlled by conformational states of ABC proteins. Translation termination and initiation are linked by ABC proteins. General mechanisms apply for resetting, splitting, and recycling intermediates. ABC systems emerge as key players in antibiotic resistance and ribosome quality control.

How is translation controlled?

Two general modes of control can be envisaged — global control, in which the translation of most mRNAs in the cell is regulated; and mRNA-specific control, whereby the translation of a defined group of mRNAs is modulated without affecting general protein biosynthesis or the translational status of the cellular …

How is transcription controlled?

First, transcription is controlled by limiting the amount of mRNA that is produced from a particular gene. The second level of control is through post-transcriptional events that regulate the translation of mRNA into proteins. Even after a protein is made, post-translational modifications can affect its activity.

What are examples of transcriptional control?

The maltose operon is an example of a positive control of transcription. When maltose is not present in E. coli, no transcription of the maltose genes will occur, and there is no maltose to bind to the maltose activator protein.

What are the different mechanisms of translational regulation?

In this review we will discuss the detailed molecular mechanisms of translational regulation, by focusing on examples of both global and mRNA-specific translational control. The translation process can be divided into three phases — initiation, elongation and termination.

How do you regulate translation?

Regulation of translation This process involves many “helper” proteins, which make sure the ribosome is correctly positioned. Translation can be regulated globally (for every mRNA in the cell) through changes in the availability or activity of the “helper” proteins.

What is transcriptional level control?

What is transcriptional control of gene expression?

What is an example of post-transcriptional control of gene expression?

Why is post-transcriptional control important?

These controls are critical for the regulation of many genes across human tissues. It also plays a big role in cell physiology, being implicated in pathologies such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.