What is pure red blood cell aplasia?

What is pure red blood cell aplasia?

Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia is a rare bone marrow disorder characterized by an isolated decline of red blood cells (erythrocytes) produced by the bone marrow. Affected individuals may experience fatigue, lethargy, and/or abnormal paleness of the skin (pallor).

How is PRCA treated?

Treatment options for PRCA include: Corticosteroids: Corticosteroid treatment in the form of oral prednisone is considered the mainstay of therapy for pure red cell aplasia. A corticosteroid helps the bone marrow make more red blood cells.

What is red cell aplasia caused by?

Pure red blood cell aplasia (PRCA) describes a type of anemia brought about by the marrow’s inability to produce these cells. An autoimmune disease, PRCA can result from drugs, viral infections, herpes, parvovirus B19 (fifth disease), hepatitis or HIV. Children can also be born with PRCA (Blackfan-Diamond syndrome).

How do you test for PRCA?

Tests and tools doctors use to diagnose PRCA include:

  1. Physical exam and history.
  2. Blood tests: A complete blood count with a differential that looks at the total number and type of blood cells in your blood.
  3. Bone marrow examination, including aspiration and biopsy to see how your bone marrow looks (required for diagnosis)

Is pure red cell aplasia Macrocytic?

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon disorder in which maturation arrest occurs in the formation of erythrocytes. Erythroblasts are virtually absent in bone marrow; however, white blood cell and platelet production are normal. The anemia due to PRCA is usually normocytic but can be macrocytic.

What type of hormone is EPO?

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone, naturally produced by the peritubular cells of the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production. Renal cortex peritubular cells produce most EPO in the human body.

Where do you inject erythropoietin?

You have erythropoietin as an injection under the skin (subcutaneously). It is usually given into the thigh or tummy.

Is EPO a cytokine?

Introduction. Erythropoietin (EPO) was named for its long-appreciated hormonal effect of maintaining the circulating erythrocyte mass. In recent years, however, it has been recognized that EPO is a member of the cytokine type I superfamily. Typical for cytokines, EPO has multiple functions outside of the bone marrow.

What is the role of vitamin B12 in erythropoiesis?

Erythroblasts require folate and vitamin B12 for proliferation during their differentiation. Deficiency of folate or vitamin B12 inhibits purine and thymidylate syntheses, impairs DNA synthesis, and causes erythroblast apoptosis, resulting in anemia from ineffective erythropoiesis.

Can EPO be given IV?

Objective: Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of erythropoietin (EPO) is recommended over the intravenous (i.v.) route to reduce doses and costs. Optimal iron treatment is important for the optimal EPO effect.

What is the best time to inject epoetin?

Typically we give it when returning a dialysis patient, but most doctors say it is fine to inject EPO 20 to 25 minutes before dialysis patient termination by saying it is a protein.

Why erythropoietin is a cytokine?

Erythropoietin is a cytoprotective cytokine induced by the hypoxia inducible factor family. EPO is the hematopoietic factor responsible for the production of red blood cells and for this function is produced mainly by the adult kidney.

Which vitamin is essential for red blood cells?

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a condition in which your body does not have enough healthy red blood cells, due to a lack (deficiency) of vitamin B12. This vitamin is needed to make red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of your body.