What is recombinant HIV?

What is recombinant HIV?

One recombinant HIV strain has spread rapidly to millions of persons in Southeast Asia. Recombination is a mechanism whereby high level and multidrug-resistant strains may be generated in individual treated patients. Recombination also poses theoretical problems for the development of a safe HIV vaccine.

What is HIV proliferation?

Proliferation of HIV-infected cells is to some extend unexpected: activation of T cells by antigens or cytokines can drive cellular proliferation but likely also reverse HIV latency, resulting in productive viral infection and cell death.

What proteins come packaged in the virus?

The virus genome provides the necessary genetic information required to produce the four structural proteins; the Spike (S), Envelope (E) and Membrane (M) proteins that form the outer layer of the virus particle and the Nucleocapsid (N) protein that tightly packs around and protects the RNA (Figure).

How do you detect recombination?

Methods for Detecting Recombination

  1. (a) Distance Methods.
  2. (b) Phylogenetic Methods.
  3. (c) Compatibility Methods.
  4. (d) Substitution Distribution.
  5. (1) Bootscanning (Salminen et al.
  6. (2) Geneconv (Sawyer 1999 )
  7. (3) Homoplasy Test (Maynard Smith and Smith 1998 )
  8. (4) Informative Sites Test (Worobey 2001 )

What is productive infection?

Viral infection of a cell that produces progeny via the vegetative or lytic cycle.

What happens during the acute infection stage?

In the acute stage of infection, HIV multiplies rapidly and spreads throughout the body. The virus attacks and destroys the infection-fighting CD4 cells (CD4 T lymphocyte) of the immune system.

Is coronavirus a protein?

The spike. Coronaviruses are named for the crown of protein spikes covering their outer membrane surface. Early work on the novel coronavirus has focused on these spike proteins—also called S proteins—because they are the keys that the virus uses to enter host cells.

What is the nucleic acid inside the coronavirus?

SARS-CoV-2 consists of a positive sense (+) single-strand RNA genome [4, 5]. It belongs to the β-coronavirus sub-family along with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV [4, 6].

What is the difference between recombination and complementation?

The key difference between complementation and recombination is that complementation is the ability of two mutants in combination to restore a normal phenotype while recombination is the exchange of genetic material between chromosomes, resulting in physical alterations in chromosomes.

What are recombinant genotypes?

If meiosis results in recombination, the products are said to have a recombinant genotype. On the other hand, if no recombination occurs during meiosis, the products have their original combinations and are said to have a non-recombinant, or parental genotype.