What is the equation for the expansion of the universe?

What is the equation for the expansion of the universe?

The formula toc=h/moc expresses the electro-gravitational field bound to M2VP . Protons ( M2VP ) represent the stable particles of matter of the expanding universe.

What is an equation of state astronomy?

The equation of state for the gas is simple: the pressure = (a constant × the mass density × the temperature) / (the molecular weight of the gas). The molecular weight of a particular type of gas is the combined mass of all of the isotopes of that type of gas in the proportions found in nature.

What is the equation of state parameter?

Models of dark energy are conveniently characterized by the equation-of-state parameter w=p/\rho, where \rho is the energy density and p is the pressure. Imposing the Dominant Energy Condition, which guarantees stability of the theory, implies that w \geq -1.

What is equation of state in astrophysics?

FLRW equations and the equation of state The equation of state may be used in Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) equations to describe the evolution of an isotropic universe filled with a perfect fluid. If is the scale factor then. If the fluid is the dominant form of matter in a flat universe, then.

What is the most famous equation ever?

When it was first discovered, it was groundbreaking. Einstein’s E=mc² is the world’s most famous equation. Simple as that. It is short, it is elegant, and it describes a phenomenon so crucial that everyone should know about it.

What is equation of state in thermodynamics?

In the limit of low pressures and high temperatures, where the molecules of the gas move almost independently of one another, all gases obey an equation of state known as the ideal gas law: PV = nRT, where n is the number of moles of the gas and R is the universal gas constant, 8.3145 joules per K.

What is the fluid equation cosmology?

Abstract. The well-known fluid equation of cosmology is examined with a view to elucidating the precise conditions under which it is applicable. From the Second Law, it may be deduced that both an absolute temperature, T, and an entropy, S, exist and TdS = d′Q, where d′Q represents an increment of heat.

How do you find the equation of a state?

These two laws can be combined to form the ideal gas law, a single generalization of the behaviour of gases known as an equation of state, PV = nRT, where n is the number of gram-moles of a gas and R is called the universal gas constant.

What is an equation of state give an example?

The simplest known example of an equation of state is the one relating the pressure P, the volume V, and the absolute temperature T of one mole of a perfect gas; that is, PV = RT, in which R is the universal gas constant. Dense real gases, liquids, and solids have more complicated equations of state.

What is the definition of equation of state?

equation of state. noun. any equation that expresses the relationship between the temperature, pressure, and volume of a substance.

What is the equation of state and explain?

Equation of state: The equation which connects the state variables in a specific manner is called an equation of state. An ideal gas obeys the equation PV = NkT at thermodynamic equilibrium.