What is the most common cause of dystocia in the mare?

What is the most common cause of dystocia in the mare?

The most common cause of dystocia in the mare is an abnormal alignment of the head or forelimbs of the foal in the birth canal. Foaling is usually a rapid and forceful event.

What is the leading cause of death in newborn foals?

Sepsis is defined as the presence of bacteria or bacterial toxins in the bloodstream, and it is the most common cause of death in newborn foals. Sepsis can manifest as pneumonia, diarrhea, meningitis (inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord), and joint and/or umbilical infections in the foal.

What does NFS mean in dogs?

Naked foal syndrome (NFS) is an inherited disorder found in the Akhal-Teke breed and is characterized by hairlessness, abnormal teeth development, digestive disorders, persistent diarrhea, and laminitis-like problems.

How do you fix contracted tendons in a foal?

Some young foals with contracted tendons are helped by an injection of a specific large dose of oxytetracyline antibiotics. This appears to work by the alteration of calcium metabolism or calcium availability in the tendons.

What causes deformities in foals?

Factors that may contribute to these conditions include: abnormal intrauterine positioning, hormonal Imbalances, nutritional Imbalances, unfavorable conformation, incomplete ossification, immaturity of musculoskeletal tissues, flexor tendon laxity, flexor tendon contracture, and young rapidly growing foals.

What is a red bag foal?

In a ‘red bag’ delivery the placenta has partially or completely separated from the mares endometrium (lining of the uterus) prior to the foal being delivered. This means that the foal is getting no oxygen from the time of separation (or reduced oxygen in the case of partial separation) to the time it is delivered.

How do you pull a foal?

The foal should begin to be delivered head and front feet first. It is best to let the mare manage this stage on her own as long as there are no complications. Occasionally it is necessary to gently assist the delivery by pulling the foal in a downward direction when the mare is pushing.

What happens if a foal doesn’t get colostrum?

Colostrum — or “first milk” — is the most important meal of the foal’s life. Without it, he is at high risk of dying from infections that would normally be insignificant. While most mares produce plenty of colostrum, which the foal gobbles up, sometimes this passive-immunity transfer process fails.

What is meconium impaction?

Meconium impaction implies failure to evacuate sufficient quantities of meconium — the sticky, caramelized feces of the foal that is composed of intestinal secretions, swallowed amniotic fluid and cellular debris — with subsequent development of signs of colonic obstruction.

What is a white blaze on a dog?

A very small amount of white on the chest, toes or tail may occur when the pigment doesn’t migrate fully as the embryo develops. This is known as residual white and can sometimes be caused by minor illness in the mother or in the embryo, or may have no obvious cause at all.

What causes lax tendons in foals?

The cause of congenital laxity is unknown. Lack of musculoskeletal stress or tension in utero may play a role in its development. Premature foals are more likely to have lax tendons and foals born without the condition can acquire it if they become debilitated for some other reason.

Why are foals born with contracted tendons?

Contracted tendons can be congenital or acquired. In congenital conditions, it is possible due to factors such as the foal was malpositioned within the uterus, toxic substances the mare was exposed to while pregnant, or genetic defects.

What is carpal valgus dog?

Carpal valgus in dogs is an outward turning of the paw from the level of the wrist and is a frequently encountered example of an angular limb deformity. In all cases, angular limb deformities result from atypical bone growth due to rapid growth or damage or injury to a dog’s bony growth plate.

What are the effects of birth defects in foals?

Affected foals can have metabolic problems, including failure of thermoregulation, gut motility, and reduced ventilation. Early work in England determined the disorder is associated with human interventions or rapid birth deliveries. The cause of the abnormal behavior was unknown but believed to be birth low oxygen levels affecting the brain.

Is it dangerous for a foal to pop out in labor?

It’s often impossible to discern whether the foal about to pop out of a mare in labor will have a health problem. There are, however, a few predisposing factors that could indicate a potential problem. “Most disorders of the newborn foal result from high-risk pregnancies,” Barr explained.

What causes neonatal infections in foals?

Without that protection, foals become susceptible to neonatal infections within the first week. FPT has a variety of causes, including poor-quality colostrum, a failure to ingest adequate colostrum and failure to absorb ingested colostrum. The first step in such cases is to ensure that the foal’s serum IgG levels are adequate.

Is it normal for a foal to get injured?

It is very unusual for a foal to get injured during this period, particularly while being observed. Occasionally a foal will get itself into a position that makes it difficult to continue attempting to stand, or it may get tired, so we may enter the stall to move the foal into a new position or give its hind end a boost.